What to save the soil of deterioration? !

The inevitable job of people engaged in agriculture is to inspect one-acre and three-point land frequently. Land is vital to the growth of crops, and the state of the soil directly determines the output, and also controls the joys and sorrows of the agricultural people. In the event of problems in the soil, new farmers need to invest more energy to repair. Soil erosion, nutrient depletion, and soil compaction are common problems and are not just problems in our country. The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization's report "The State of the World's Soil Resources" pointed out that 33% of the world's land is in moderate to high degree due to salinization, compaction, acidification and chemical pollution.
But as long as countries take measures together, this trend can be reversed.
As an agricultural person, the natural thing we worry about is how to improve the soil and revitalize the dry land.
What are the causes and solutions for the deterioration of the land?
1 heavy chemical fertilizer, causing soil compaction, some farmers believe that "application of chicken manure, duck manure and other organic fertilizers are likely to cause burnt roots and smoked seedlings, should not be used, so a large number of chemical fertilizers.
Insufficient application of organic fertilizer, lack of organic matter, and deterioration of soil fertility.
The gas permeability is reduced, the aerobic microbial activity is decreased, the soil is ripened slowly, causing soil compaction, vegetable root development, and affecting vegetable growth.
Solution: Organic fertilizer can be added. The application of organic fertilizer can improve soil aggregate structure, enhance soil permeability, retain water and maintain heat storage capacity, make soil loose and fertile, alleviate soil salinization, promote vegetable root development, and improve its resistance to disease and disaster.
For greenhouse vegetables, the large amount of organic fertilizer can also supplement the carbon dioxide in the greenhouse and increase the photosynthetic rate.
There are many types of organic fertilizers, including traditional poultry manure, decomposed straw, and emerging refined organic fertilizers and bio-organic fertilizers.
There are a few points to note when applying:
1. Manure must be decomposed.
When poultry manure is not decomposed, nitrogen is present in the form of urate. Uric acid is not only difficult to be directly absorbed and utilized by vegetables, but also harmful to the growth and development of vegetable roots, which may cause problems such as excessive salt ion concentration and burning of seedlings.
The unfertilized manure contains a large number of pathogenic microorganisms and eggs, which need to be cooked to kill.
Manure can be used after being cooked, or it can be applied to the soil and then decomposed.
The rate of natural decomposing is slow, and it can be quickly fermented by means of a decomposing agent, such as the use of the antibacterial 968 with high fertility.
2. Bio-organic fertilizers cannot be applied simultaneously with fungicides, and an environment conducive to microbial survival should be created after application.
The application of biological bacterial fertilizer can play a role in disease prevention and growth promotion, but the premise is that the biological bacteria must survive and multiply.
Most of the biological bacteria are suitable for living in a humid environment, so it is necessary to immediately water after applying the biological fertilizer.
2 Salinization aggravates the long-term excessive application of chemical fertilizers, the salt ions in the soil increase, the soil salinization is aggravated, hindering the normal water absorption of the roots, affecting plant growth.
When it is serious, it is like planting in salt water, causing the dead roots.
The soil salt damage is divided into light and heavy. The initial ground has a green frost, and then it develops into the green skin "moss". The shed crops are still normal.
When the "red frost" appeared on the ground, the shed crops showed wilting in the middle of the crop; when the soil salt was heavy, the white crystal "salt cream" appeared on the ground, and the shed vegetable seedlings appeared dead; when the shed contiguously died, the soil solution osmotic pressure was high. The whole root system is like a bubble in a pickle jar. It is easy to cause root water backflow, reverse osmosis, red root cortex, stem atrophy, crop root rot, dehydration and death.
Solution: At present, the best measures to solve soil compaction and salinization are to use good microbial agents to improve the agglomerate structure of the soil, make the soil loose and breathable, promote the rooting of the vegetables, and ensure the absorption of nutrients and water by vegetables.
3 The lack of trace elements is affected by market factors and planting habits, and continuous cropping is a common phenomenon of growing vegetables.
However, continuous cropping is likely to cause partial loss of soil nutrients, especially trace elements such as zinc, boron and iron.
Neglecting the application of micro-fertilizers leads to various deficiency syndromes in the growth of vegetables.
Solution: To add trace elements, choose the right product, second, choose the time of use, and third, master the dosage. Whether it is fruit or leafy.
There are 3 ways to supplement trace elements:
1. Bottom application: Agricultural potassium carbonate---Agricultural potassium carbonate contains about 35% of available potassium, 80% to 90% of which is water-soluble potassium, which is easily absorbed by crop roots and is rich in nitrogen, phosphorus and calcium. Magnesium, zinc, molybdenum, manganese, silicon and other trace elements are rare fertilizers for agricultural production.
Can be combined with other organic fertilizers.
2. Rushing: Applying fertilizers containing various trace elements such as iron, copper, manganese, zinc, boron, molybdenum, etc., combined with flushing and fertilizing, supplementing various elements, solving various deficiency diseases, and balancing the absorption of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium by vegetables. Proportion, changing the quality of vegetables.
3. Foliar application: Foliar application of trace elements is suitable for physiological diseases with mild deficiency, and in order to ensure the absorption rate, micro-fertilizer with better chelation state should be selected.
4 continuous cropping, extensive cultivation for many years will cause the accumulation of bacteria and eggs in the soil, easy to induce a variety of diseases of vegetables.
1. Rotation: You don't want to use the same variety of vegetables in a piece of land. You can rotate and plant another kind of vegetable varieties, such as melons and onions, which can reduce the occurrence of pests and diseases and reduce the toxic effects of toxins.
A certain legume vegetable is arranged in the rotation to increase the nitrogen content of the soil by means of nitrogen fixation by the symbiotic rhizobium.
Some mustard, peas, etc. are arranged in the rotation, which can absorb phosphorus and potassium which cannot be utilized by ordinary vegetables, and some of them are re-transformed into the soil by the available ecology, which improves the nutritional status of phosphorus for the sorghum vegetables.
2. Deeply ploughing the land: When each vegetable is planted, it will be deeply ploughed at intervals. If it is not ploughed, it can be dug through the ground, thicken the mature soil layer, and enhance the soil water storage and fertilizer retention capacity.
3. Reasonable farming, proper leisure: After planting for many years, you can grasp the season and properly relax the land. It can use winter ploughing frozen soil and summer and autumn soil to promote soil ripening, ensure the looseness of vegetable soil layer and improve soil fertility.
5 Soil acidification is mainly caused by long-term and unreasonable application of chemical fertilizers.
Each crop has its own range of soil pH, and most crops are preferably slightly acidic to slightly alkaline.
After acidification of the soil, it affects the growth of the crop. To a certain extent, it does not last long. Phosphorus is still deficient after phosphorus application, and potassium is still absent after potassium application.
After acidification of the soil, it affects the effectiveness of the fertilizer.
When the pH value is 6-8, the soil available nitrogen content is the highest.
When the pH is less than 6.5, the phosphorus in the soil becomes iron aluminum phosphate and is consolidated.
When the pH value is less than 6.0, the content of available potassium, calcium and magnesium in the soil is drastically reduced, and the use of more potassium fertilizer is also ineffective, which can only cause the soil salinization to be intensified.
Soil acidification not only affects the effectiveness of a large number of elements, but also the effectiveness of trace elements.
For example, boron in the range of pH 4.7-6.7, molybdenum in the range of pH 4-8, with the decrease of pH, the effectiveness is reduced.
Toxic substances in the soil that are toxic to crops. After acidification of the soil, substances such as aluminum ions in the soil poison the crop roots and die, often forming black and white brush-like roots.
At the same time, the soil uses fertilizer for a long time, and the amount of topdressing is large, which causes the soil aggregate structure to be seriously damaged, the gas permeability is reduced, the aerobic microbial activity is decreased, and the soil ripening is slow, thereby causing soil acidification and stagnation.
The harm of acidified soil compaction to vegetables is that the roots are difficult to lay down, the crops grow slowly, and the yield is reduced.
The second is that even if the root system can be tied down, the root oxygenation will occur due to the low oxygen content of the soil.
Solution: For acidified plots, agricultural potassium carbonate can be used. Agricultural potassium carbonate is alkaline, contains more potassium, and contains more medium and trace elements. It can regulate soil pH and potassium supplementation, and can neutralize soil acidity.
1. Neutralization. Agricultural potassium carbonate is a quick-acting alkaline fertilizer containing 30% to 35% of calcium oxide. It is applied in acidic soil to increase the calcium content in the soil, neutralize the acidity of the soil, and restore the good structure of the soil, which is conducive to the growth and development of the crop.
Geothermal. Agricultural potassium carbonate is an alkaline hot fertilizer. The application of agricultural potassium carbonate in the seedling field can improve the physical and chemical structure of the soil, significantly increase the soil temperature, promote the root growth of the seedlings, reduce the occurrence of rooting caused by low temperature, and promote Root growth, reducing the risk of cold and cold in early spring.
Enhance the multi-functional effects of crop disease resistance, lodging resistance and insecticide sterilization. The Tujia ancestors maintained the acid-base balance and potassium balance of the soil by applying fire manure (plant ash with lower potassium content than agricultural potassium carbonate).
The importance of soil to us is well known. Too big to say that the food produced in the soil is the basis for our survival. From a small perspective, it can filter and purify water and regulate the climate. The ancient man-made word "people are good for food", growing grain is a conscience, and the decline of soil fertility is a natural process, but it cannot be abused. Find the right way, the right medicine, the worse, poor land can also be restored.

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